Sep 27

PHP LogoDid you know that PHP has some pretty powerful type casting functionality built-in? It’s no surprise if you comprehend the roots of PHP (since it’s written in C), but I can’t help but think that casting is an often-missed tool when a PHP developer is trying to ensure data integrity.

Just for a moment, let me define type casting in case you weren’t “in the know”:

According to Wikipedia, “in computer science, type conversion or typecasting refers to changing an entity of one data type into another.

So, in laymen terms, casting is an easy way to turn one type of data into another type. For example: converting a “string” variable filled with essentially text into an integer variable containing the same numbers but now representing a value. This makes it easy to do math with the value of what once was just a random string of characters.

The following cast types are allow in PHP:

  • String – (string)
  • Boolean – (bool), (boolean)
  • Integer – (int), (integer)
  • Binary – (binary) [PHP 6]
  • Floating Point – (float), (double), (real)
  • Array – (array)
  • Object – (object)

So, in the real world, when does casting actually come in handy?
Normally, PHP handles all this stuff automatically behind the scenes. But, as is normal, dealing with MySQL database interaction is something to always take seriously — and type casting can help you out!

We’re going to assume your aren’t using the PDO Prepare statement (though you should be). As a PHP developer, a major part of your job is containing the inherent security risks of user input. It’s especially important when these inputs interact directly with the database.

So, your simplified (e.g. – don’t complain) database interaction code might look something like this:

$id = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST['input']);
$SQL = 'SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = ' . $id;

Call me an overly nervous Ned, but I’d prefer to use the following code:

$id = mysql_real_escape_string($_POST['input']);
$SQL = 'SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = ' . (int)$id;

Did you notice the subtle change? See the ‘int’ cast of the $id in the SQL statement?

This should certainly help to ensure that I haven’t missed any security holes for this query. Some might say it’s overkill, but I just wanted a simple explanation for using casting, so get off your almighty soapbox already.

Anyways, as you can see, type casting in PHP has real-world uses. Delve into type casting a little more and you’ll find a huge number of cases where it can make your code that much more bullet-proof.

So seriously, try out PHP Type Casting.

13 Responses to “Type Casting In PHP – What’s the Point?”

  1. Jim Kane Says:

    Great post, Ned! That is your name from now on.

  2. David Konsumer Says:

    I use sprintf for the same purpose, with the plus side being that you can keep all your queries in a config file.

  3. David Konsumer Says:

    Bah, bad formatting.

    sprintf(‘SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = %d’, mysql_real_escape_string($_POST['input']));

  4. Jack B Says:

    Wouldn’t it be just as secure to use the following:

    $id = number_format($_POST['id'], 0, “”, “”);
    $sql = “SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = $id”;

    This way, if the posted value is not a integer, 0 is returned at the query doesn’t fail?

  5. computerzworld Says:

    Hi…. I want to convert my array into string using typecasting without using implode. I tried with (string)Array. But it didn’t worked. How is it possible to convert array to string using typecasting?

  6. Briddo Says:


    serialize(array) will turn your array into a string.
    unserialize(string) will turn it back into an array.

    Or >>

    $string = “”;
    foreach ($array as $key => $value):
    $string .= $value . ‘ ‘;

  7. Hans Says:

    Actually the best way would be:
    $SQL = ‘SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = ‘ . (int) $_POST['input'];
    you do not need mysql_real_escape_string when you use (int), because integers cannot be used for SQL injections.

    to computerzworld:
    if implode and (string) don’t do what you want then use foreach

  8. Alex Says:

    I agree with Hans. Why use mysql_real_escape_string if you know that it should be an integer?? Casting (int) will do.

    It is not only an overkill but also contributing to the global warming. I mean performing senseless computations. Besides calling a function takes time, while (int) is really fast.

  9. David Konsumer Says:

    Alex, hans: if you make a query function, and keep your queries as strings, you can automate it, and use %s, without SQL injection.

  10. Eugene Says:

    Thats all good, but has anyone ever notice that php pretty much sorts the tyes out for herself.
    The following 3 all return the same result (10.24) …

    echo ((int)’1024′) / 100;
    echo ’1024′ / 100;
    echo ’1024′ / ’100′;

    So why?

  11. Chris Says:


    The reason why is you have to force the variable to become an integer for security.

    Consider a page which uses a GET request:


    If I’m a nasty hacker, I can potentially do this:

    product.php?id=’ or ’1′ = ’1

    Which could turn (behind the scenes) into

    “SELECT * FROM admin_users WHERE username = ‘admin’ and password = ‘xxx’ OR ’1′ = ’1′;”

    PHP won’t automatically convert my GET variable into an integer. However, if I force it to, by casting, the string: ‘ or ’1′ = ’1 will never be passed to my database, but the string 123 will be passed because it can be cast.

    Hope that explains it.

  12. rich97 Says:

    I use typecasting all of the time. I think it can be quite a nice way to slim down your, code in some cases. For instance:

    if (!is_array($data)) {
    $data = array($data);
    //foreach over $data

    With typecasting I can do this:

    $data = (array) $data;
    //foreach over $data

    I also use it regularly to ensure that the correct type is returned by a method.

    Please correct me if you think this is wrong.

  13. Protection against SQL Injection using PDO and Zend Framework – part 2 » DotKernel Says:

    [...] A short tip, you can use cast type to avoid SQL Injection in WHERE clause where is possible. $sql= 'SELECT * [...]

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